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The recent discovery of its
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came out of the drug culture
users which has the very highest likelihood of later heroin use. The progression hypothesis
(11 of 24)4/15/2004 1:07:52 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 8
holds up best in the very group where the commission gathered data.
Lower-class adolescent slum dwellers are far more likely to come to the attention of
formal legal agencies of social control than the middle-class suburban teenager. For the
latter, informal, nonrecord, nonarrest implementation is more likely than for the former, if
caught. Again, it is a certainty that this progression to heroin is most likely among the
slum dwellers, which the authors themselves state, and least likely at the top of the class
structure, which is distinctly underrepresented in official records. The process of officially
recording an individual's illegal behavior is highly contingent on social class,
neighborhood, race, and education, among other contingencies. Official notice, in fact, is
immersed in the very process the authors are trying to explain. The problem is not with
differentials of law enforcement involvement, as the authors imply (i.e., with the New
York Youth Council files as opposed to incarcerated drug users), but with involvement
with the law at all as opposed to no involvement. In my study only seven respondents
were arrested on marijuana charges, and none was incarcerated. To reason from this
handful of cases concerning the characteristics of the 200 users in my sample would have
led to erroneous conclusions.
The Narcotics Addiction Control Commission survey at least implied that its validity
was stronger in some groups and weaker in others. Another study7 often cited by law
enforcement officers to support their pot-to-heroin claim was conducted among the
admissions to the Lexington and Fort Worth addiction centers' inmates in 1965. Of the
addicts studied, 70 percent had used marijuana prior to their addiction, that is, had
progressed to the narcotics from cannabis. This is quoted as definitive proof that the
stepping-stone hypothesis is valid. Giordano, for instance, quotes the Lexington study to
support his antipot propaganda. Haslip, too, uses the Ball Lexington research report as
support for the progression thesis. Further, both pieces claim that the addict survey
documents the pharmacological "effects" explanation for the transition to heroin.
What does the Ball article really say? Actually, its argument and presentation of fact is
much more subtle than the law officers admit. The findings do not support the
pharmacological explanation: they refute it. And they do not even document the
progression theory; they qualify it. The main point of the Ball-Chambers-Ball article was
not that 70 percent of all addicts once used pot. It is that where there is an illicit drugusing
subculture, marijuana and heroin will be found as mutual components, making the
link more likely; where there is no illicit drug subculture, the progression is unlikely,
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|Cannabis Cultivo r, thus having experiences,
which are inadequately communicated by language.
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(9 of 9)4/15/2004 7:06:17 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 10
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On Being Stoned
Charles T. Tart, Ph. D.
Chapter 10. Ostensible Paranormal Phenomena (ESP)
PHENOMENA PURPORTING to be paranormal in nature—i.e., involving the transmission of information
(extrasensory perception, ESP) or power (psychokinesis, PK) across space or time when known physical
carriers would not be operative—were often reported in pilot interviews with marijuana users, so a number of
questions were devoted to this in the main study. A questionnaire study can only deal with ostensible
paranormal phenomena, i.e., with phenomena that the experiencers themselves judge to be paranormal.
Whether such phenomena would appear to be genuinely paranormal in terms of laboratory standards is
unknown; judging by previous studies of self-reported ESP instances (Anonymous, 1958; Green, 1960, 1966;
Gurney, Myers, & Podmore, 1886; Membership Committee, American Society for Psychical Research, 1967;
Prasad and Stevenson, 1968; Sidgwick et al., 1894), some of the ostensible ESP would be discounted by a
scientific investigator and some would turn out to be well evidenced and worthy of investigation. Thus the
figures given below for paranormal phenomena are probably too high in terms of actual paranormal
phenomena, 1 but do reflect the incidence of ostensible paranormal phenomena in our 150 marijuana users. It
is, of course, the experiencer's own judgment of the paranormality of an experience that may radically alter his
belief system, not the judgment of a hypothetically expert scientist. Thus ostensible paranormal phenomena are
an important aspect of marijuana intoxication.
First, it should be noted that most of the users (76 percent) believe in the reality of ESP; their responses to
the question, "I believe in the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP), i.e., that people can sometimes
acquire knowledge about things happening at a distance in space or time, or about other people's thoughts,
when there is no possibility of this knowledge having been acquired through the known senses (sight, hearing,
etc.)" are tabulated in Table 10-1.
(1 of 10)4/15/2004 7:06:26 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 10
BELIEF IN ESP
LEVEL OF BELIEF
Believe strongly 46%
Believe somewhat 30%
Haven't made up my mind 15%
Disbelieve somewhat 6%
Disbelieve strongly 3%
No response 1%
A specific question dealing with marijuana experiences was "I feel so aware of what people are thinking that
it must be telepathy, mind reading, rather than just being more sensitive to the subtle cues in the behavior."
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Kraatz, and F
btains its nutrients.
HPS: A high Pressure Sodium Light.
Humus: The brown or black organic part of soil resulting from the
partial decay of leaves and other matter.
Hybrid: The offspring of two plants of different species or varieties of
Hydroponics: The science of growing plants in mineral solutions or
liquid, instead of in soil.
Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
Infection: The formation of a parasite within or on a host plant.
Infectious Disease: A disease that is caused by a pathogen which can
spread from a diseased to a healthy plant.
Inflorescence: The flower cluster of a plant.
Inoculum: The pathogen or its parts that can cause infection.
Internode : The distance between branches along the stem.
Joint: A cannabis cigarette.
Kief: A term from Morocco used to explain a fine grade of quality
Lateral: Referring to side(s) of the plant structure.
Leaching: The removal or loss of excess salts or nutrients from soil.
Leaflet: Segment of a compound leaf.
Leafy: Having numerous leaves.
Lesion: An area of diseased tissue, normally with a change in color.
Linear: Resembling a line; long and narrow and of uniform width.
Also refers to uniform growth.
Loam: A rich soil composed of clay, sand and organic matter.
Lobe: A major expansion or bulge-like shape, as at the margin of a leaf
Lumen: A scientific measurement for luminosity from a light source.
Manure: Organic matter, usually the excrement of an animal such a
horse, which is used as a rich fertilizer.
Margin: The edge, generally of a leaf.
Marijuana: Another term for cannabis.
Mary Jane: A codeword for marijuana.
MH: Metal Halide light system.
Micronutrients: Mineral elements that are needed by some plants in
very small quantities.
Mildew: A powdery growth on the plant’s surface.
Mother: A selected mother plant kept for its vigor or likable
characteristics by the grower. It is used for cloning and breeding.
Mottle: Refers to irregular patterns on the leaf of light and dark areas
Mutation: A change in genetic material brought about by an abnormal
influence such as radiation.
Native: A plant that occurs and grows naturally in a specific region or
Necrosis: A necrosis is dead tissue on areas of the plant.
Nematicide: A chemical compound that kills nematodes.
Nematode: Microscopic, wormlike animals that live in water or soil,
or as parasites of plants and animals.
Node: Position on a stem from which one or more structures
(especially branches) arise.
NPK: Abbreviation for nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potassium
(K), the three primary nutrients for plants.
Oil: Refers to cannabis resin when it is not in a solid state.
Organic: This refers to a method of gardening utilizing only materials
derived from living things and not man made chemicals.
Osmosis: The process by which a solvent passes through a semipermeable
membrane into a region of greater solute concentration, so